Promega Tm Calculator

Promega Tm CalculatorPromega Biomath Calculator Perform everyday lab calculations with a single app. KOD DNA Polymerase MSDS (material safety data sheet) or SDS, CoA and CoQ, dossiers, brochures and other available documents. Use the NEB Tm Calculator to estimate an appropriate annealing temperature when using NEB PCR products. OligoEvaluator™ for T m Calculation & Primer Analysis OligoEvaluator™ for DNA or RNA Primers We are pleased to offer OligoEvaluator™, our online oligonucleotide sequence calculator that provides primer analysis values for PCR: Base count Molecular weight Extinction coefficient Oligo type µg/OD at 260 nm Length (base pairs). TM Calculator TM Calculator. 4)/ (wA+xT+yG+zC) When degenerated nucleotides are included in the primer sequence (Y,R,W,S,K,M,D,V,H,B or N), those nucleotides will be internally substituted prior to. By Promega Corporation Perform everyday lab calculations with a single app. Journal of Visualized Experiments (JOVE) – Videos for many detailed protocols for advanced techniques. The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). OligoEvaluator™ for T m Calculation & Primer Analysis OligoEvaluator™ for DNA or RNA Primers We are pleased to offer OligoEvaluator™, our online oligonucleotide sequence calculator that provides primer analysis values for PCR: Base count Molecular weight Extinction coefficient Oligo type µg/OD at 260 nm Length (base pairs). T m for Oligos dsDNA: µg to pmol DNA Length (bp) DNA Amount (µg) Formula μ g D N A × p m o l 660 p g × 10 6 p g 1 μ g × 1 N = p m o l D N A N is the number of nucleotides and. Use the green master mix for direct-to-gel analysis after amplification Use the colorless master mix for post-amplification analysis by fluorescence or absorbance without prior DNA purification Choose a master mix Colorless Green Size 1,000 reactions 100 reactions Catalog number selected: M7122 $ 51. Oligo Calculator tool calculates melting temperature (Tm), molecular weight (MW), Millimolar Extinction Coeff (OD/μmol, µg/OD) for oligos. The Biomath Calculators provide a range of functions essential to molecular biology. Use the green master mix for direct-to-gel analysis after amplification Use the colorless master mix for post-amplification analysis by fluorescence or absorbance without prior. com/webtools/tmc/ Dimer & Hairpin Structures OligoAnalyzer Tm calculaton and search for hairpin and dimer structure http://www. The AMP-Glo™ Assay can be performed in 96-, 384-, low-volume 384- and 1536-well plates. rather than , as these calculators use decimal points for input/output of calculations. After removal of the medium, 1 mL of lysis buffer (E4030, Promega) was applied for 10 min on ice. The equation used is: T m = Δ H kcal ∘ C × Mol Δ S + R In ( [primer] / 2) − 273. Please right click in "sequence tab" to insert internal modification. After removal of the medium, 1 mL of lysis buffer (E4030, Promega) was applied for 10 min on ice. This tool calculates Tm with the nearest-neighbor method with adjustments for laboratory conditions. DNA Conversions. For GC-rich targets (≥ 65% GC), amplification can be improved by the addition of the 5X Q5 High GC Enhancer. Read the 96-well reaction plate using the Kinase-Glo™ Luminescence Protocol on a GloMax plate reader (Promega; Cat# E7031). This Tm calculator uses a modified nearest-neighbor method based on the method described by Breslauer et al. com/webtools/tmc/ Dimmers & Hairpin Structures OligoAnalyzer Tm calculaton and scan for hairpin press dimer structure http://www. The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). This tool calculates melting temperature (Tm), molecular weight (MW), GC content, Extinction Coeff (L/ (mole·cm)), nmol/OD260, ug/OD260 for oligos. NEB Tm Calculator Other Tools Another great online tool from New England Biolabs INC. Read the 96-well reaction plate using the Kinase-Glo™ Luminescence Protocol on a GloMax plate reader (Promega; Cat# E7031). 15 ∘ C Δ H is the enthalpy of base stacking interactions adjusted for helix initiation factors (3,4). BioMath Calculator – DNA, RNA, and protein conversions; dilution and molarity calculators provided by Promega. Typically, use a 10–30 second annealing step at 3°C above the T m of the lower T m primer. Ligation Tutorials Insert DNA length Vector DNA length Vector DNA mass Required insert DNA mass --- (1:1) --- (2:1) --- (3:1) --- (5:1) --- (7:1) Formula. The average fold change between pulldown (mPlsp1 ΔTMD bait) and control (SE-only mock) was calculated from the log 2 transformed ratio of intensity-based absolute quantification (iBAQ) values for each protein. *The calculated Tm for a given primer can vary significantly between different calculation methods. Tm calculator This application calculates the Tm for a primer, real gives operating on how to dilute the primer go a desired concentrate. The equation used is: T m = Δ H kcal ∘ C × Mol Δ S + R In ( [primer] / 2) − 273. This Tm calculator uses a modified nearest-neighbor method based on the method described by Breslauer et al. for creating a mutation or a restriction site, make sure to calculate the Tm only for the correctly matched sequence. Cells were scraped, sonicated, and centrifuged at 15,900 × g/15 min/4 °C (Eppendorf Centrifuge. A temperature gradient can also be used to optimize the annealing temperature for each primer pair. Fill all values Clear all values Help Clear Table * Sequence (5’→ 3’) * Type 5’Modification 3’Modification 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. Tm calculator This application calculates the Tm for a primer, and gives instructions on how to dilute the primer to a desired concentration. LIGATION CALCULATOR Please provide the following information: vector size (in bp): vector amount (in ng): insert size (in bp): Please enter the molar vector : insert ratio: (normally a vector to insert ratio of 1 to 3 is used of cohesive end ligations. This resource offers a personal perspective. See BioMath Calculator to calculate the melting temperature forprimers in the GoTaq®reaction (www. luciferin/luciferase reaction (Figure 1). Instructions Select the product group of the polymerase or kit you plan to use. The NEB Tm calculator should be used to determine the annealing temperature when using Phusion. Taq DNA Polymerase with Buffers for Enhanced PCR Amplification Direct-to-gel convenience. Promega Biomath Calculator Perform everyday lab calculations with a single app. Select the product group of the polymerase or kit you plan to use. μg DNA × pmol 660pg × 106pg 1μg × 1 N = pmol DNA μ g D N A × p m o l 660 p g × 10 6 p g 1 μ g × 1 N = p m o l D N A. Therefore, MPS methodologies are being considered as an additional tool in forensic genetic casework. The Tm Tool SM is a web-based application created to calculate and predict the melting temperature of DNA, specifically primers, probes, and small oligos. The Biomath Calculators provide a range of functions essential to molecular biology experiments, including nucleic acid and protein conversions, melting temperature, temperature conversion, molarity and dilution calculations. The Gulf of Mexico is an important crude oil reserve worldwide, and the oyster Crassostrea virginica is an excellent candidate to study the oil spill impacts on marine invertebrates. The calculator also calculates the primer length, percentage of GC content, molecular weight, and extinction coefficient. Plug the sequence into a Tm calculator if you have the sequences, that will tell you -killerkoz17- there is basic tm ie the tm if the primer was place in distilled water there is salt adjusted tm, ie the tm of the primer in a salt solution of a certain molarity. See BioMath Calculator to calculate the melting temperature forprimers in the GoTaq®reaction (www. The NEB Tm Calculator should be used to determine the annealing temperature when using this enzyme. T m values, annealing temperature, and other data are automatically generated. The equation used for the melting temperature is: Tm = 81. by "Pharmaceutics"; Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industries Antimalarials EDTA Enzymes Escherichia coli Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid Malaria Monosaccharides Phosphates Sugars. Perform everyday lab calculations with a single app. **The analyzer reports possible primer-dimers based on the detection parameters given below the sequence input window. According to the QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Stratagene) protocol, the mutation should be in the middle of the primer, and the primer should have a minimum GC content of 40%, should terminate in one or more C or G bases, should be between 25 and 45 bases in length, and have a melting temperature close to or above 78 degrees C. Formula. Adjust calculation options if desired. Count the radioactivity (cpm) on the P81 paper in the presence of scintillation fluid in a scintillation counter. Temperature Conversion T m for Oligos dsDNA: µg to pmol DNA Length (bp) DNA Amount (µg) Formula μ g D N A × p m o l 660 p g × 10 6 p g 1 μ g × 1 N = p m o l D N A [Loading] N is the number of nucleotides and 660pg pmol 660 p g p m o l is the average molecular weight of a nucleotide pair. Enter primer sequences (with up to 3 ambiguous bases). Predicting melting temperature (Tm) is a simple way to quantify the melting point of DNA. Research-friendly oligo calculator Flexible input and advanced parameters to optimize your custom order: Enter your primer or other oligo sequence Adjust calculation options if desired Choose a function: Select ANALYZE for easy, one-click access to a T m calculator, GC content calculator, extinction coefficient calculator, and more. Part Numbers: M3001, M3005, M3008 Receive $2,000 of free Promega Genomics Products! Purchase An Eppendorf Mastercycler®️ to receive $2,000 of free Promega Genomics Products! Restrictions apply, view. The Promega mission statement is: To be the most responsive supplier of biological reagents and reagent systems used in research and applied technology applications worldwide. 8, genomic DNA was extracted using the cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method, and then digested with EcoR I and self-ligated to generate circular molecules. Part Numbers: M3001, M3005, M3008 Receive $2,000 of free Promega Genomics Products! Purchase An Eppendorf Mastercycler®️ to receive $2,000 of free Promega Genomics Products! Restrictions apply, view promo page for details. Click "Analyze" and the melting temperature (T m) will be displayed along with additional properties of your oligo. NEBioCalculator Ligation Calculator This tool will calculate the mass of insert required at several molar insert:vector ratios in the range needed for typical ligation reactions. The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). The Tm Tool SM is a web-based application created to calculate and predict the melting temperature of DNA, specifically primers, probes, and small oligos. OligoCalc – Oligonucleotide property calculator. Tm calculator This application calculates the Tm for a primer, and gives instructions on how to dilute the primer to a desired concentration. 5) by imposing step changes (range −3 to +3 nm per half‐sarcomere) on an isometrically contracting fibre. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a relatively simple technique that amplifies a DNA template to produce specific DNA fragments in vitro. Using the conversion curve, determine the amount of ADP produced (nmol) in the presence (step 6) and absence of substrate (Step 7) and calculate the kinase specific activity as outlined below. Here we show that the genome-editing activity of Cas9 can be constrained by the addition of cytosine stretches to the 5′-end of conventional single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs). The calculator calculates recommended T m (melting temperature) of primers and PCR annealing temperature based on the primer pair sequence, primer concentration, and DNA polymerase used in PCR. Important Note: If the PCR primer contains desired mismatches, e. NEB Tm Calculator is used to estimate an appropriate annealing temperature in NEB PCR products. 15 ∘C T m = Δ H kcal ∘ C × Mol Δ S + R In ( [primer] / 2) − 273. To obtain the genomic DNA sequence of RcHSP17. 41 (%GC) - 675/N - % mismatch, where N = total number of bases. Use the NEB Tm Calculator to estimate an appropriate annealing temperature when using NEB PCR products. According to the QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Stratagene) protocol, the mutation should be in the middle of the primer, and the primer should have a minimum GC content of 40%, should terminate in one or more C or G bases, should be between 25 and 45 bases in length, and have a melting temperature close to or above 78 degrees C. Paste your primer sequence below (5' to 3'): (Only considers A, T, G and C, and is case-insensitive) Number of mismatched bases (if there are any): Always check your final primer sequences. Promega Buffer Enter Values Buffer Selection Formula The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). The sodium equivalent is calculated as follows: [Na +] = Monovalent ion concentration + 4 × (Free Mg 2+) 1/2 (all in molarity) The default value = 382. T m for Oligos dsDNA: µg to pmol DNA Length (bp) DNA Amount (µg) Formula μ g D N A × p m o l 660 p g × 10 6 p g 1 μ g × 1 N = p m o l D N A N is the number of nucleotides and 660 p g p m o l is the average molecular weight of a nucleotide pair. The PCR products were purified and cloned into pGEM-T vector (Promega, Beijing, China) for sequencing. Free Online Library: Selection of an Aptamer against the Enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerase from Plasmodium falciparum. 00 Your price: Log in Add to Cart Add to Helix. Summary: Offering tools beyond the standard molarity or dilution calculators, the Promega Biomath Calculators app offers a total of thirteen calculators for the life. This tool calculates melting temperature (Tm), molecular weight (MW), GC content, Extinction Coeff (L/ (mole·cm)), nmol/OD260, ug/OD260 for oligos Please right click in "sequence tab" to insert internal modification. Find your DNA sequence by pressing Load a file from your hard-drive: Or, paste plain text or FASTA-formatted DNA sequence in the box below: 4. 15 ∘C T m = Δ H kcal ∘ C × Mol Δ S + R In ( [primer] / 2) − 273. Note that an anealing temperature will only be displayed if both primer sequences are entered. This Tm calculator uses a modified nearest-neighbor method based on the method described by Breslauer et al. Promega Notes Catch up on research trends, feature stories, and learn more about Promega technologies in Promega Notes. com/analyzer/Applications/OligoAnalyzer/. This tool calculates Tm with the nearest-neighbor method with adjustments for laboratory. Q5 High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase is unlike typical, lower fidelity PCR enzymes. Note that an anealing temperature will only be displayed if both primer sequences. The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). Promega Biomath Calculator Perform everyday lab calculations with a single app. Molarity Calculator Note: When entering decimal values in the Biomath calculators, please use a decimal point “. The equation used is: T m =. The Tm Tool SM is a web-based application created to calculate and predict the melting temperature of DNA, specifically primers, probes, and small oligos. Determine the corrected cpm by removing the blank control value (see Step 4) for each sample and calculate the kinase specific activity as outlined below. higher molar ratios can be used for blunt end ligations). Minimize the effect of amplification inhibitors. The Biomath Calculators provide a range of functions essential to molecular biology experiments, including nucleic acid and protein conversions, melting temperature, temperature conversion, molarity and dilution calculations. Select the polymerase or kit from the list of products. The PCR products were purified and cloned into pGEM-T vector (Promega, Beijing, China) for sequencing. The equation used is: T m = Δ H kcal ∘ C × Mol Δ S + R In ( [primer] / 2) − 273. The NEB Tm Calculator should be used to determine the annealing temperature when using this enzyme. NEBioCalculator Ligation Calculator This tool will calculate the mass of insert required at several molar insert:vector ratios in the range needed for typical ligation reactions. N is the number of nucleotides and 660pg pmol 660 p g p m o l is the average molecular weight of a nucleotide pair. To use the calculator select your DNA polymerase, type. After removal of the medium, 1 mL of lysis buffer (E4030, Promega) was applied for 10 min on ice. In this work, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) from eight productive oyster areas in the Gulf of Mexico were measured on sediment, water, and tissues. Traditional methods of cloning a. The average fold change between pulldown (mPlsp1 ΔTMD bait) and control (SE-only mock) was calculated from the log 2 transformed ratio of intensity-based absolute quantification (iBAQ) values for each protein. Biomath Calculators: Tm, DNA conversions, molarity, dilutions and more. Promega Biomath Calculator Perform everyday lab calculations with a single app. Promega tm calculator Calculate Tm (melting temperature) for oligonucleotides. A separate method is used for T m and annealing temperature calculation of reactions with Taq-based DNA polymerases. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a relatively simple technique that amplifies a DNA template to produce specific DNA fragments in vitro. Predicting melting temperature (Tm) is a simple way to quantify the melting point of DNA. The equation used is: Tm = ΔH kcal ∘C × Mol ΔS + R In ( [primer] / 2) − 273. The PowerSeq™ Auto/Y System (Promega Corp), a multiplex forensic kit for MPS, enables analysis of the 22 autosomal STR markers (plus Amelogenin) from the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C kit and 23 Y-STR markers from the PowerPlex® Y23 kit. Promega Buffer Enter Values Buffer Selection Formula The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). Traditional methods of cloning a DNA sequence into a vector and replicating it in a living cell often require days or weeks of work, but amplification of DNA sequences by PCR requires only hours. This tool will calculate the mass of insert required at several molar insert:vector ratios in the range needed for typical ligation reactions. A separate method is used for T m and annealing temperature calculation of reactions with Taq-based DNA polymerases. For non-thermodynamic Tm calculation using simple formulae; the Wallace-Ikatura rule is often used as a rule of thumb when primer Tm is to be estimated at the bench. The NEB Tm calculator should be used to determine the annealing temperature when using Phusion. The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). Typically, primers greater than 20 nucleotides in length anneal for 10–30 seconds at 3°C above the T m of the lower T m primer. This resource offers a personal perspective on science, the people who “do” science, and the tools we. The melting temperature of an oligo can be determined using our free OligoAnalyzer™ Tool. Choose a function: Select ANALYZE for easy, one-click access to a T m calculator, GC content calculator, extinction coefficient calculator, and more. The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). The half‐sarcomere strain–isometric force relation ( Y 0 – T 0) was obtained by determining fibre stiffness at different [Ca 2+] (pCa range, 6. Promega Biomath Calculator Perform everyday lab calculations with a single app. The sodium equivalent is calculated as follows: [Na +] = Monovalent ion concentration + 4 × (Free Mg 2+) 1/2 (all in molarity) The default value = 382. By Promega Corporation. Use the green master mix for direct-to-gel analysis after amplification Use the colorless master mix for post-amplification analysis by fluorescence or absorbance without prior DNA purification Choose a master mix Colorless Green Size 1,000 reactions 100 reactions Catalog number selected: M7122 $ 51. BioMath Calculator – DNA, RNA, and protein conversions; dilution and molarity calculators provided by Promega. Enter the sequence in the "Sequence" box and update the settings to correspond with your assay conditions. By monitoring indels through a fluorescence-based allele-specific system and computational simulations, we identified optimal windows of Cas9 activity for a number of genome-editing applications,. Promega Biomath Calculator Perform everyday lab calculations with a single app. The Biomath Calculators provide a range of functions essential to molecular biology experiments, including nucleic acid and protein conversions, melting temperature, temperature conversion, molarity and dilution calculations. This application calculates the Tm for a primer, and gives instructions on how to dilute the primer to a desired concentration. If needed, modify the recommended primer concentration. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a relatively simple technique that amplifies a DNA template to produce specific DNA fragments in vitro. High fidelity DNA polymerase designed for accurate PCR amplification of DNA templates for general cloning and cDNA amplification applications. Ligations: Molar Ratio of Insert:Vector. By monitoring indels through a fluorescence-based allele-specific system and computational simulations, we identified optimal windows of Cas9 activity for a number of genome-editing applications,. Ligation Calculator. Step 1 Select a Promega Primer OR Enter Oligo Sequence Step 2 Primer Concentration (nM) Step 3 Set salt and Mg++ by selecting a product or entering concentration values. The equation used for the melting temperature is: Tm = 81. The ǂ sign indicates detection solely in the pulldown. Typically, primers greater than 20 nucleotides in length anneal for 10–30 seconds at 3°C above the T m of the lower T m primer. Upload Now - or - Upload Translated or specify a DNA region to translate from to Upload Translated Region Finally, obtain your designed primer sequences. The Biomath Calculators provide a range of functions essential to molecular biology. Count the radioactivity (cpm) on the P81 paper in the presence of scintillation fluid in a scintillation counter. To use the calculator select your DNA polymerase, type in or paste your primer sequences, and provide your final primer concentration. Instructions Select the product group of the polymerase or kit you. The equation used is: T m = Δ H kcal ∘ C × Mol Δ S + R In ( [primer] / 2) − 273. Temperature for Free Energy Calculation. Tm calculator This application calculates the Tm for a primer, real gives operating on how to dilute the primer go a desired concentrate. This paper presents a novel approach for embedding uncompressed images in a standard PDF417 2D barcode using a blind digital watermarking technique. NEB Tm Calculator (tmcalculator. Δ Δ H is the enthalpy of base. LIGATION CALCULATOR Please provide the following information: vector size (in bp): vector amount (in ng): insert size (in bp): Please enter the molar vector : insert ratio: (normally a vector to insert ratio of 1 to 3 is used of cohesive end ligations. The calculator calculates recommended T m (melting temperature) of primers and PCR annealing temperature based on the primer pair sequence, primer concentration, and DNA polymerase used in PCR. The equation used is: Tm = ΔH kcal∘C × Mol ΔS + R In ( [primer] / 2) − 273. Ligation Tutorials Insert DNA length Vector DNA length Vector DNA mass Required insert DNA mass --- (1:1) --- (2:1) --- (3:1) --- (5:1) --- (7:1) Formula. The text is encoded in the standard PDF417 format with error correction, while the face and fingerprint imagesare watermarked in the encoded 2D barcode. Use the NEB Tm Calculator to estimate an appropriate annealing temperature when using NEB PCR products. The Biomath Calculators provide a range of functions essential to molecular biology experiments, including nucleic acid. However, the formula was originally applied to the hybridisation of probes in 1M NaCl and is an estimate of the melting temperature for short oligonucleotides: for longer 14 bases:. NEB tools – Useful tools and resources provided by NEB. Catch up on research trends, feature stories, and learn more about Promega technologies in Promega Notes. This paper presents a novel approach for embedding uncompressed images in a standard PDF417 2D barcode using a blind digital watermarking technique. T m for Oligos dsDNA: µg to pmol DNA Length (bp) DNA Amount (µg) Formula μ g D N A × p m o l 660 p g × 10 6 p g 1 μ g × 1 N = p m o l D N A N is the number of nucleotides and 660 p g p m o l is the average molecular weight of a nucleotide pair. A separate method is used for T m and annealing temperature calculation of reactions with Taq-based DNA polymerases. The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3). This is used to calculate the Gibbs free energy (ΔG) in the formula: ΔG = ΔH - T ΔS. Calculation of [P33]-ATP Specific Activity (SA) (cpm/pmol). For enzymatic reactions that use ATP as a substrate and produce AMP as a. DNA calculations to convert µg to pmol for double-stranded and single-stranded DNA, convert micrograms of DNA to pmol ends, calculate vector:insert molar ratio and convert. Part Numbers: M3001, M3005, M3008 Receive $2,000 of free Promega Genomics Products! Purchase An Eppendorf Mastercycler®️ to receive $2,000 of free Promega. Step 1 Select a Promega Primer OR Enter Oligo Sequence Step 2 Primer Concentration (nM) Step 3 Set salt and Mg++ by selecting a product or entering concentration values Promega Buffer Enter Values Buffer Selection Formula. SDS CoA References Brochures User Protocol Citations. LIGATION CALCULATOR Please provide the following information: vector size (in bp): vector amount (in ng): insert size (in bp): Please enter the molar vector : insert ratio: (normally a vector to insert ratio of 1 to 3 is used of cohesive end ligations. The calculators are divided into DNA conversions (such as converting mass to moles, or calculating the nanograms of DNA insert required for a ligation), protein conversions (such as calculating. Δ H is the enthalpy of base stacking interactions adjusted for helix initiation factors (3,4). Promega Corporation is a worldwide leader in applying biochemistry and molecular biology to the development of innovative, high-value products for the life sciences. The NEB Tm calculator should be used to determine the annealing temperature when using Phusion. HELP ABOUT Tech Support Feedback NEB. ” rather than “,” as these calculators use decimal points for input/output of calculations. To use the calculator select your DNA polymerase, type. The most sophisticated T m calculations take into account the exact sequence and base stacking parameters, not just the base composition (1,2,3).